predict differences in student achievement (S. Sapon, personal communication), because efficient acquisition is taking place for all students.
Knowledge of French wouldA fifth alternative, "any other personal reason", was also permitted. Gardner and Lambert explain that "S's who ranked either alternative (2) or (3) as most relevant were classified as 'integratively oriented". Those choosing either (1) or (4) were classified as 'instrumentally oriented'. Those choosing alternative (5) were not classified" (p. 193)
1. be useful in obtaining a job,
2. be helpful in understanding the French-Canadian people and their way of life,
3. permit meeting and conversing with more and varied people,
4. make one a better educated person.