II is obviated by an independently justified model of adult second language competence in which intake informal environments and formal instruction make different sorts of contributions to second language competence.
Table 3. Linguistic environments relevant to second language proficiency in adults _____________________________________________________________________________ In the classroom Outside the classroom _______________________ ______________________________ "intake" informal formal (language "intake" "exposure" (self- use) formal informal informal study) _____________________________________________________________________________ Acquisition * * Learning * * _____________________________________________________________________________
Table 3 summarizes the implications of the literature survey and SLOPE data in terms of Monitor Theory. Both formal and informal linguistic environments contribute to second language proficiency but do so in different ways: an intensive intake informal environment can provide both the adult and child with the necessary input for the operation of the language acquisition device. The classroom can contribute in two ways: as a formal linguistic environment, providing rule isolation and feedback for the development of the Monitor, and, to the extent language use is emphasized, simultaneously as a source of primary linguistic data for language acquisition.