Stephen D Krashen

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Summer Reading: Program and Evidence (Allyn and Bacon 2007)
Fay Shin and Stephen Krashen
Posted: 2015-06-03

The Natural Approach: Language Acquisition in the Classroom (Alemany 1983)
Stephen Krashen and Tracy Terrell
Posted: 2018-02-19

A short, narrow and biased introduction to statistics
Stephen Krashen
Posted: 2015-06-10

Under Attack: The Case Against Bilingual Education (Culver City: Language Education Associates (Out of Print))
Stephen Krashen
Posted: 2015-04-13

Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition
Stephen D. Krashen
Posted: 2004-03-20

Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning (1981)
Stephen Krashen
Posted: 2003-02-16


Literacy: Phonemic Awareness and Phonics

Literacy: Free Voluntary Reading

Literacy: Writing

Common Core, National Reading Panel, NCLB

Bilingual Education

Language Acquisition


other writers

Letters to the Editor

All Articles On-Line


Summer Reading: Program and Evidence (2007)
Stephen Krashen with Fay Shin
Posted: 2013-10-31

English Learners in American Classrooms (2007)
Stephen Krashen with James Crawford
Posted: 2013-10-31

Free Voluntary Reading (2011)
Stephen Krashen
Posted: 2013-10-31

The Power of Reading (Second Edition, 2004)
Stephen Krashen
Posted: 2004-09-22

Explorations in Language Acquisition and Use: The Taipei Lectures. (2003)
Stephen Krashen
Posted: 2003-02-16


conduit hypothesis handout (presented at mittenCI 2019)
Stephen Krashen
Posted: 2019-04-28

Intermediate Fluency Fast
Stephen Krashen
Posted: 2017-07-06

88 Generalizations about Free Voluntary Reading
Stephen Krashen
Posted: 2004-11-21

Articles By Topic

Literacy: Free Voluntary Reading
Pleasure reading in a foreign language and competence in speaking, listening, reading and writing (TEFLIN Journal 30,2: 231-235.)
Kyung Sook Cho and Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2019-08-11

The Conduit Hypothesis (Language Magazine April, 2018)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2019-07-19

The impact of popular literature study (System 28: 261-270. (2000))
C. Lao and S. Krashen      Posted: 2019-07-17

The impact of popular literature study (System 28: 261-270. (2000))
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2019-07-17

The impact of popular literature study (System 28: 261-270. (2000))
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2019-07-17

The school year slide (
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2019-07-12

The case for narrow reading (Language Magazine 2004 3(5): 17-19)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2019-06-25

2002 Filback and Krashen (Knowledge Quest 31/2 50-51. 2002)
Robert Filback and Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2019-04-23

The Bookmooch Plan (Language Magazine, 13(5): 17. 2018.)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2019-04-18

Eye fixation studies do not disprove the Goodman-Smith hypothesis (In: Krashen, S. 1999. Three arguments against whole language and why they are wrong. Heinemann.)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2019-03-26

Direct Teaching of Vocabulary? (Journal of English Language Teaching 61 (1): 9-13.)
Stephen Krashen and Beniko Mason      Posted: 2019-03-20

Where Do We Get Our Academic Vocabulary? Comparing the Efficiency of Direct Instruction and Free Voluntary Reading (Reading Matrix. (in press))
Jeff Mcquillan      Posted: 2019-03-08

The power of reading: Case histories of second and foreign language readers. (Language and Language Teaching 8,1,15: 10-14. 2019.)
Willy A. Renandya, George M. Jacobs, Stephen Krashen,and Crystal Ong Hui Min      Posted: 2019-01-26

Do libraries and teacher librarians have the solution to the long-term English language learning problem? (CSLA Journal 41(2): 16-19. 2018)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2019-01-26

The Star Method: Will they do it? (Language and Language Teaching 8,1,15: 21-24. 2019)
David Miller, Andrew Hesler and Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2019-01-24

The potential of series books: How narrow reading leads to advanced L2 proficiency (LEARN Journal 11,2, 2018, 148-154)
Renandya, W., Krashen, S. and Jacobs. G.      Posted: 2018-12-22

What does it take to develop a long-term pleasure reading habit? (Turkish Online Journal of English Language Teaching. 1(1): 1-9. 2016)
K.S. Cho and S. Krashen      Posted: 2018-12-16

The Impact of Sustained Silent Reading and a Visit to the Library on Establishing a Reading Habit: Helpful but not Sufficient (Language and Language Teaching (Azim Premji University), 7(2), 1-3. 2018.)
Kyung Sook Cho and Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2018-12-01

The power of story in SLA: Insights from research. (Reconceptualizing English Language Teaching and Learning in the 21st Century A Special Monograph in Memory of Professor Kai-chong Cheung. Taipei: Crane and ETA. pp. 498-512.)
Lee, S-Y      Posted: 2018-11-14

Reading, language acquisition and the din in the head (ITL 113-114, 1996. 305-318.)
Jeff McQuillan      Posted: 2018-11-08

What have we learned from PIRLS? (Krashen, S. Lee, SY, & Lao, C. 2017 Comprehensible & Compelling: The Causes & Effects of Free Voluntary Reading. Libraries Unlimited.)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2018-11-05

Accelerated reader: Evidence still lacking (2005. Knowledge Quest 33(3): 48-49)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2018-10-03

Vocabulary acquisition through read-alouds and discussion: A case study. International (2014 International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching 9,1: 2-6.)
Lee, M.H. Lee, S.Y.and Krashen, S..      Posted: 2018-09-30

Becoming a dragon: Progress in English as a second language through narrow free voluntary reading (California Reader 29: 9-10. 1995)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2018-08-27

American Students’ Vocabulary Acquisition Rate in Japanese as a Foreign Language from Listening to a Story (Turkish Online Journal of English Language Teaching (TOJELT), 3(1), 6-9. 2018.)
Beniko Mason and Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2018-07-27

Improvement on TOEFL through reading and without formal instruction: Another look at Isik (2013). Turkish Online (Journal of English Language Teaching 3(1): 24-15. 2018)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2018-07-25

The effects and efficiency of hearing stories on vocabulary acquisition by students of German as a second foreign language in Japan. (The Indonesian Journal of English Language Teaching, 5(1), 1-14.)
Mason, B., Vanata, M., Jander, K., Borsch, R., & Krashen, S.      Posted: 2018-06-01

The purpose of education, free voluntary reading, and dealing with the impact of poverty (2016 School Libraries Worldwide. 22(1):1-7)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2018-05-28

Should We Encourage E-Reading? (Journal of English Language Teaching (India). 2017. 59(6): 26-29)
S. Krashen and J. McQuillan      Posted: 2018-03-24

Yew Hock Yeo: A Literacy Autobiography (Language Magazine, July 2016, 35-37.)
Yeo, Y.H., Ghim-Lian Chew, P. and Krashen, S.      Posted: 2018-02-03

Hypotheses about free voluntary reading (In J. Mukundan, Ed. Reading of EST Materials III. Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysa: Pearson Malaysa 181-184. 2009.)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2018-01-18

The NRP comparison of whole language and phonics: ignoring the crucial variable in reading (Talking Points 13(2): 22-28)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2017-12-31

Should we encourage e-reading? (Journal of English Language Teaching (India) (59)6:26-29.)
Stephen Krashen and Jeff McQuillan      Posted: 2017-12-29

Should we encourage e-reading? (Journal of English Language Teaching (India))
Stephen Krashen and Jeff McQuillan      Posted: 2017-12-29

Sustained silent reading in foreign language education: An update (TOJELT 2017 2:70-73)
Stephen Krashen and Beniko Mason      Posted: 2017-10-06

Self-selected reading and TOEIC performance: Evidence from case histories. (2017. Shitennoji University Bulletin, 63, 469-475.)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2017-05-13

Junk Food is Bad For You, but Junk Reading is Good for You (International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching 1,3: 5-12. 2005)
Stephen Krashen and Joanne Ujiie      Posted: 2016-09-04

We acquire vocabulary and spelling by reading: Additional evidence for the input hypothesis. (Modern Language Journal 73: 440-464. 1989)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2016-07-02

Learn with Book (In: Hills, Phillip J., ed. The Future of the Printed Word. Greenwood Press, 1980.)
R. J. Heathrn      Posted: 2016-04-28

The Great Fiction/Nonfiction Debate. Published as: Fact or fiction? The plot thickens. (Language Magazine, 15(3): 22-27. 2015)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2016-04-03

Free Voluntary Web-Surfing (In Myers, J and Linzmeier, J. (Eds), The Proceedings of 2007 International Conference and Workshop on TEFL & Applied Linguistics, Department of Applied English, Ming Chuan University, Taiwan. Taipei: Crane Publishing Company. pp. 7-14, 2007 Reprinted in Krashen, S Free Voluntary Reading, 2011, Libraries Unlmited)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2015-12-18

Can Second Language Acquirers Reach High Levels of Proficiency Through Self-Selected Reading? An Attempt to Confirm Nation's (2014) Results (International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching 10 (2): 10-19.)
Stephen Krashen and Beniko Mason      Posted: 2015-11-05

The incredible Frog-Boy is on the Loose Again: When Adult Second language Acquirers Read the National Enquirer. (The International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching 10,2: 20-23, 2015.)
KS Cho and S. Krashen      Posted: 2015-11-04

The Naruto breakthrough: The home run book experience and English language development. (2015. Language Magazine 15(1): 32-25.)
Vinnie Jordan Henkin and Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2015-09-03

Reading Aloud: What To Do and What Not to Do (Language Magazine, July 2015)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2015-07-18

Interactive computer books: Do children make use of the "special effects"? (Journal of the California School Library Association 19,1: 38-39. 1995)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2015-07-06

Need all children read "proficiently" by grade 3? (Language Magazine 11(2):24-27. 2011.)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2015-05-18

Self-reported reading as a predictor of vocabulary knowledge (Perceptual and Motor Skills 2013, 117, 2, 442- 448.)
N. Pratheeba and S. Krashen      Posted: 2015-04-30

Are readers nerds? (Reading Improvement 47, 3: 151-153. 2010.)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2015-04-30

Protecting Students Against the Effects of Poverty: Libraries (New England Reading Association Journal 46 (2): 17-21, 2011.)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2015-04-18

A longitudinal study of the effects of two reading methods on leisure-time reading habits (Reading: What of the future? ed. D. Moyle. London: United Kingdom Reading Association. Pp. 107-114. 1973.)
Greaney, V., and M. Clarke, M.      Posted: 2015-04-13

Reading English as a foreign language: What a mother can do. (Reading Improvement 39(4): 158-163. 2002)
Cho, K.S. and Krashen, S.      Posted: 2015-04-12

Is there a decline in the reading romance? (Knowledge Quest 30(3): 11-17. 2002.)
Krashen, S. and Von Sprecken, D.      Posted: 2015-04-09

From Sweet Valley Kids to Harlequins in one year. (California English 1,1; 18-19. 1995.)
Cho, K.S. and Krashen, S.      Posted: 2015-03-09

The impact of one trip to the public library: Making books available may be the best incentive for reading. (The Reading Teacher 51(7): 614-615.)
Francisco Ramos and Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2015-02-27

Do students read during sustained silent reading? (The California Reader 32(1): 11-13. 1998)
Debra Von SPrecken and Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2015-02-25

The effect of free reading on language and academic development: A natural experiment. (Mosaic 4,4: 13-15. 1997.)
Jin Sook Chang and Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2015-02-24

The cure for English fever? Stories and self-selected reading in English. (KAERA Research Forum 1(4): 41-47. 2015.)
Cho, K.S. and Krashen, S.      Posted: 2015-02-22

Patterns in PIRLS performance: The importance of liking to read, SES, and the effect of test prep. (Asian Journal of Education and e-Learing 3(1).)
Loh, EKY, and Krashen, S.      Posted: 2015-02-22

Free voluntary reading as a predictor of TOEFL scores. (Applied Language Learning 8: 111-118. 1997)
Constantino, R., Lee, S.Y., Cho, K.S. & Krashen, S.      Posted: 2015-02-12

Why don't language acquirers take advantage of the power of reading? (TESOL Journal 6,3: 26-29. 1997)
Heyoung Kim and Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2015-02-11

Differences in print environment for children in Beverly Hills, Compton and Watts. (Emergency Librarian 24,4:4-5. 1997.)
Smith, C., Constantino, R., and Krashen, S.      Posted: 2015-02-10

Is comic book reading harmful? Comic book reading, school achievement, and pleasure reading among seventh graders. (California School Library Association Journal 19,2: 27-28. 1996.)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2015-02-09

Comic book reading, reading enjoyment, and pleasure reading among middle class and chapter I middle school students. (Reading Improvement 33,1: 51-54. 1996.)
Ujiie, J. and Krashen, S.      Posted: 2015-02-08

Eating and reading in the library (Emergency Librarian 23:5 1996)
Trelease, J. and Krashen, S.      Posted: 2015-02-08

The effect of reading on the acquisition of English relative clauses. (ITL: Review of Applied Linguistics 113-114: 263-273.)
Lee, YO, Krashen, S. and Gribbons,B.      Posted: 2015-02-07

School libraries, public libraries, and the NAEP reading scores. (School Library Media Quarterly 23: 235-238. 1995)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2015-02-06

Cho, K.S. and Krashen, S. 1994. Acquisition of vocabulary from the Sweet Valley Kids series: Adult ESL acquisition. Journal of Reading 37: 662-667. (Journal of Reading 37(8): 662-667.)
Kyung-Sook Cho and Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2015-02-05

How well do people spell? (Readng Imprvement, 30 (1): 9-20. 1993.)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2015-02-04

Do we need to teach spelling? The relationship between spelling and voluntary reading among community college ESL students. (TESOL Quarterly 22: 141-146. 1988)
Polak, J. and Krashen, S.      Posted: 2015-02-04

Do we need to teach spelling? The relationship between spelling and voluntary reading among community college ESL students (TESOL Quarterly 22: 141-146. 1988)
Polak, J. and Krashen, S.      Posted: 2015-02-04

Case Histories and the Comprehension Hypothesis (TESOL Journal, 9(1), 2014.)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2014-11-25

Reach out and read (aloud). (Language Magazine, 10 (12): 17-19, 2011)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2014-11-10

Immersion: Why not try free voluntary reading? (Mosaic, 3,1:1-4, 1995)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2014-10-16

Sophia's Choice: Summer Reading (Knowledge Quest, volume 4, (March/April), 2007)
Shu-Yuan Lin, Fay Shin, and Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2014-06-17

Why invest in libraries?
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2014-05-23

Are prize-winning books popular among children? An anlaysis of public library circulation (Knowledge Quest 34 (3): 33-35. 2006.)
Joanne Ujiie and Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2014-02-04

Is acclaimed children's literature popular among children? A secondary analysis of Nilson, Peterson, and Seafoss. (Knowledge Quest 34(1): 39-40. 2005.)
Joanne Ujiie and Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2014-02-03

A comment on Accelerated Reader: The pot calls the kettle black. (Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy 47(6): 444-445. 2004.)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2013-11-14

Is Self-Selected Pleasure Reading the Cure for the Long-Term ELL Syndrome? A Case History (Stephen Krashen and Connie Williams NABE Perspectives September-December 2012, p.26 )
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2013-03-11

Reading and Vocabulary Acquisition: Supporting Evidence and Some Objections. (Stephen Krashen, Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research, 1 (1): 27-43, 2013.)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2012-12-30

Late Intervention (Stephen Krashen Jeff McQuillan Educational Leadership October 2007 vol 65 (2))
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2012-12-24

The Goodman/Smith Hypothesis, the Input Hypothesis, the Comprehension Hypothesis, and the (Even Stronger) Case for Free Voluntary Reading
 (Stephen Krashen In: Defying Convention, Inventing the Future in Literacy Research and Practice: Essays in Tribute to Ken and Yetta Goodman. P. Anders (Ed.) New York: Routledge. 2010. pp. 46-60.)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2012-12-08

Non-Engagement in Sustained Silent Reading: How extensive is it? What can it teach us? (Stephen Krashen Colorado Reading Council Journal 2011, vol 22: 5-10)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2012-11-26

Direct Instruction of Academic Vocabulary: What About Real Reading? (Stephen Krashen Reading Research Quarterly, 47(3): 233. 2012)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2012-11-22

The Comprehension Hypothesis Extended (Stephen Krashen, In T. Piske and M. Young-Scholten (Eds.) Input Matters in SLA. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. pp. 81-94.)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2012-11-18

The Spectacular Role of Libraries in Protecting Students from the Effects of Poverty (Published in: iLeader: Journal of School Library Association of New South Wales 1(4): 3-6, 2012)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2012-11-11

Is The Library Important? Multivariate Studies at the National and International Level (Stephen Krashen, Syying Lee, and Jeff McQuillan)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2012-01-15

Why We Should Stop Scolding Teenagers and Their Schools
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2011-11-13

A moral dilemma and a solution (2005)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2011-08-28

Kindelizaton: Are Books Obsolete?
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2011-07-16

Protecting Students
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2011-01-15

Keeping Your Brain Young (Language Magazine, October, 2010)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2010-12-21

The Case For Libraries and Librarians (Invited Paper, Submitted to the Obama-Biden Education Policy Working Group, December, 2008)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2009-03-15

Literacy Campaigns: Access to Books is the First Step (Literacy Network News, Spring, 2007, page 7 (Literacy Network of Greater Los Angeles))
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2007-06-09

Read-Alouds are Good for Literacy Development: A Comment on Freakonomics (Reading Today, vol 23 (2) Dec 2005/Jan 2006, p. 19)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2006-12-28

The Case for Narrow Reading (1981; TESOL Newsletter 15:23)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2006-12-28

Comic Book Reading, Reading Enjoyment, and Pleasure Reading Among Middle Class and Chapter I Middle School Students (1996) (1996; Reading Improvement 33,1: 51-54)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2006-12-28

The Home Run Book: Can One Positive Reading Experience Create a Reader? (2000; California School Library Journal 23 (2): 8-9)
Debra Von Sprecken, Jiyoung Kim and Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2006-12-28

Another Home Run (2000; California English 6(2): 25 Knowledge Quest 31(1): 36-37)
Jiyoung Kim and Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2006-12-28

More Smoke and Mirrors: A Critique of the National Reading Panel (NRP) Report on "Fluency" (2001; Phi Delta Kappan 83: 119-123, October)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2006-12-28

Is In-School Free Reading Good for Children? Why the National Reading Panel Report is (Still) Wrong (2001; Phi Delta Kappan, 86(6): 444-447)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2006-12-28

The Lexile Framework: Unnecessary and Potentially Harmful (2001) (2001; CSLA (California School Library Association) Journal 24(2): 25-26)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2006-12-28

The Lexile Framework: The Controversy Continues (2002) (2002; CSLA Journal (California School Library Association) 25(2): 29-31)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2006-12-28

Home Run Books and Reading Enjoyment (2002) (2002; Knowledge Quest 31(1): 36-37)
Joanne Ujiie and Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2006-12-28

The Impact of Reading the Bible and Studying the Bible on Biblical Knowledge. (2002) (2002; Knowledge Quest, 31(2): 50-51)
Robert Filback and Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2006-12-28

Does Accelerated Reader Work? (2003; Journal of Children's Literature, 29 (2): 9,16-30)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2006-12-28

Children’s Literature: Very Good News and Very Bad News (2004; The Sampler (Children’s Literature Council of Southern California). Fall, 2004: pp. 2-3)
Stephen D Krashen      Posted: 2006-12-28

The "Decline" of Reading, poverty and access to books, and the use of comics in encouraging reading (2005; Teachers College Record, Date Published: February 14, 2005;
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2006-12-28

Free Voluntary reading: New Research, Applications, and Controversies
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2006-12-28

Free Voluntary reading: New Research, Applications, and Controversies (2005; In G. Poedjosoedarmo, (Ed.) Innovative Approaches to Reading & Writing Instruction. Republic of Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Centre, Anthology Series 46, pp. 1-9)
Stephen Krashen      Posted: 2004-07-05

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